I prefer first version, which I like a lot. I really like the "...?" parts, and prefer them by a fair bit to the lines that replace them in V2. Adam speaking without language is how I read them, which is apt, since he's yet to eat of the tree of knowledge (here, the tree of language). I like that eating or not-eating the fruit only changes what Adam will believe, and not the reality of his being at the whim of words.
I also like how the consequence of not eating the tree's fruit called to mind the curse when Adam and Eve are expelled:
you will waste your life reading your face over and over again
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground
the tree of knowledge is a proto-language ...
seemed a little flat, maybe, perhaps a little too much like a bald statement of the idea (if that makes sense) -- though I do like the idea and the use of "proto-language". I wonder if there's a stronger / more specific verb than "is" here that might suggest an image of some sort while still conveying the same idea; I don't know what though. I also wonder about "a" proto-language, since I'd assume it was the proto-language, the urlanguage. Maybe just changing "a" does enough to address my nit here, assuming you want to. Maybe "is your proto-language"?
Also, though this may be a bad idea, I wonder if the tree could "tower" somehow (perhaps about Adam), for a Babel reference. Like I say, possibly a bad idea.
I liked "change on a word's whim" from V2, and wondered if you incorporating into V1's S4 somehow. Either in the first sentence, or negated into the second, maybe something like:
Or you can believe you are carved from clay into an ideogram of His being, resolved, not changed by a word's whim.